An Estimation of the Economic Impact of Violent Victimization in Canada, 2009
- Self-reported data on violent victimization show that in 2009 there were:
- 1,418,794 incidents of assault and 62% of these incidents were directed against male victims;
- 668,088 criminal harassment victims (data only allows for a victim count) and 74% of these victims were female (data from 2004);
- 143,421 incidents of robbery and 56% of these incidents were against male victims;
- 561,807 incidents of sexual assault and other sexual offences and 68% of these incidents were against female victims.
- Offences reported to the police in 2009:
- 160,027 incidents of assault and 58% of these assaults were against male victims;
- 69,742 incidents of criminal harassment and 53% of these were against female victims;
- 453 incidents of homicide and 82% of homicides were male victims;
- 20,067 incidents of robbery and 66% of these incidents were against male victims;
- 8,777 incidents of sexual assault and other sexual offences and 92% of these incidents were against female victims.
- The total cost associated with these violent incidents which occurred in 2009 is estimated to be $12.7 billion, or $376 per Canadian. These figures are not annual costs, and they capture all the associated costs resulted from the victimization in 2009:
- Assault cost $2.1 billion;
- Criminal harassment cost $0.5 billion;
- Homicide cost $3.7 billion;
- Robbery cost $1.6 billion;
- Sexual assault and other sexual offences cost $4.8 billion.
Justice System Costs
- Justice system costs were $1.9 billion (including the criminal justice system - which includes police, court, prosecution, legal aid, and correctional service costs and the civil justice system - which includes costs for civil protection orders, divorces and separations, and child protection systems).
- Victim costs were $10.6 billion (including health care and mental health issues, lost wages, damaged or destroyed property costs, and legal costs for matters of divorce and separation).
- Third-party costs were $0.2 billion (including social services operating costs, losses to employers and the negative impact on the expected future earnings of children exposed to spousal violence.
Tangible costs by who pays
- Tangible costs accounted for 26% of all costs ($3.3 billion);
- Intangible costs accounted for 74% of all costs ($9.4 billion), mostly due to:
- Pain and suffering costs for assault, robbery, and sexual assault and other sexual offences ($5.9 billion);
- Loss of life costs for homicide ($3.5 billion).
- Tangible costs can be further broken down by who actually paid:
- The State paid 64% of the total tangible costs ($2.1 billion);
- Individuals (including victims) paid 33% of the total tangible costs ($1.1 billion);
- Businesses paid 4% of the total tangible costs ($116 million).
Josh Hoddenbagh, Ting Zhang and Susan McDonald, 2014. An Estimation of the Economic Impact of Violent Victimization in Canada, 2009. Department of Justice Canada, Research and Statistics Division: Ottawa.
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